خصوصیات ساختاری لایه های نازک SnS خالص و SnS دوپ شده با استفاده از مدل های همسانگرد و ناهمسانگرد-Structural characterizations of pure SnS and In-doped SnS thin films using isotropic and anisotropic models

An electrochemical route has been employed to prepare pure SnS and indium-doped SnS thin films. Six samples including undoped SnS and In-doped SnS thin films deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates. An aqueous solution having SnCl2 and Na2S2O3 used as the primary electrolyte. Different In-doped SnS samples were prepared by adding a different amount of 1 mM InCl3 solution into the first electrolyte. The applied potential (E), time of deposition (t), pH and bath temperature (T)were kept at −۱ V, 30 min, 2.1 and 60 °C, respectively. For all samples, except the Indopant concentration, all the deposition parameters are the same. After preparation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)with an energy dispersive X-ray
analyzer(EDX) attachment, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)were used to determine structural properties of as-deposited films. XRD patterns revealed that
the synthesized undoped- and In-doped SnS thin films were crystallized in the orthorhombic structure. The shape of SnS crystals was spherical in the TEM image. X-ray peak broadening studies was done by applying Scherrer’s method, Williamson-Hall (W–H) models(including uniform deformation model (UDM), uniform strain deformation model (UDSM), and uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM)), and size-strain plot (SSP) method. Using these techniques, the crystallite size and the lattice strains have been predicted. There was a good agreement in the particle size achieved by W–H- and SSP methods with TEM image.

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