بررسی مکانیسم تشکیل ذرات معلق در یک کوره سیمان شبیه سازی شده در مقیاس آزمایشگاهی لجن فاضلاب شهری.-Investigation of formation mechanism of particulate matter in a laboratory-scale simulated cement kiln co-processing municipal sewage sludge

The integrated utilization of wastes in a cement kiln has become an international megatrend. Various hazardous compounds containing in wastes might be enriched in the particulate matter (PM) emitted during the waste disposal and cause adverse environmental consequences. In order to evaluate the potential environmental issues caused by the PM emission from the cement kiln for co-processing wastes, the chemical characteristics and formation mechanism of the PM was investigated for the first time by using a laboratory-scale tube furnace to simulate this process. PM was collected to analyze the major components (heavy metals, inorganic and organic components) and morphologies. The results reveal that volatile heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge (MSS) can be enriched in PM. The process can elevate the levels of sulfate and the organic contents in PM, and the existence of organic moieties such as CNþ and CHNþ suggest that the co-processing of MSS can affect the PM organic compositions. Single particle imaging analyses indicate that PM can be classified into nine types based on their elemental compositions. Further analysis reveals that most particles usually mix with other types of particles and those mixed particles may cause a more serious impact on the environment. Based on the
TEM observation, a two-step formation mechanism of PM is proposed. Our findings point out the potential environmental adverse effects and call attentions to a full environment assessment of this new type of cement production process, and also indicates stringent measures should be taken to reduce PM emissions during this process.

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